From micro-controllers to data centers, from humans to  environment, temperatures need to be optimum for effective performance and reliability. Many Cooling and Heating technologies are being deployed since years and are being perfected with time. Emerging Technologies are gaining attention due to the specific needs.

Significant enhancements in fundamental device materials, technologies and system integration have led to rapid increases in the total power consumption of Power systems.  In many cases, power consumption has increased while system size has decreased, leading to an even greater problem with heat density.  Thermal management of such systems often imposes the main obstacle to further enhancements.